In 2025, we will celebrate the 100th anniversary of quantum mechanics. Over the past century, this field has led to remarkable technological advances, including lasers, MRI scanners, and computer chips.

Currently, researchers are focused on developing quantum computers and exploring new methods for secure information transfer through the emerging field of quantum information science.

Despite these advances, some foundational questions raised by the pioneers of quantum mechanics remain unanswered.

Recent developments in quantum information science are providing new perspectives on these questions, including how they might relate to Albert Einstein's principle of relativity and the concept of the qubit.

## Quantum Computers

Quantum information science aims to build quantum computers that operate using quantum bits or qubits. The concept of the qubit has its roots in the early 20th-century discoveries by Max Planck and Albert Einstein, who introduced the idea of discrete energy packets, or "quanta," in 1900 and 1905, respectively.

Unlike classical bits, which can only be either a 1 or a 0, qubits leverage the principle of quantum superposition to represent both 1 and 0 simultaneously.

This property allows qubits to be entangled, creating a state where multiple qubits act in unison in ways that classical bits cannot.

As a result, quantum computers can perform certain calculations much more quickly than classical computers.

For instance, one quantum device has demonstrated solving a problem 100 trillion times faster than its classical counterpart using 76 entangled qubits.

Yet, the exact nature of the force or principle behind quantum entanglement remains a significant question. My colleagues and I in quantum information theory are exploring how Einstein's relativity principle might provide answers.

## Quantum Information Theory

Einstein's relativity principle asserts that the laws of physics are uniform across all observers, regardless of their position, orientation, or relative motion. We have used this principle in conjunction with quantum information theory to understand quantum entanglement.

While traditional quantum physics often focuses on forces and energies, quantum information theory views quantum mechanics through the lens of information principles.

This approach allows us to explore quantum entanglement without needing to identify a specific physical force, which, according to physicist John Bell, would otherwise imply "spooky actions at a distance."

Bell's 1964 theorem established that any explanation of quantum entanglement involving forces must act faster than light, conflicting with Einstein's theory of special relativity. Many researchers, including my team, are seeking explanations for quantum entanglement that avoid such paradoxes.

## Classical vs. Quantum Entanglement

Classical entanglement involves pairs of classical bits of information. For example, if two friends each receive a glove from the same pair, knowing one glove's orientation immediately reveals the other glove's orientation. This is a straightforward case of classical information entanglement.

Quantum entanglement, however, involves qubits and behaves differently. Take electron spin as an example.

When measuring an electron's spin along one axis (e.g., vertical), you get either up or down. Measuring along a perpendicular axis (e.g., horizontal) yields left or right spin. Surprisingly, if you first measure the spin vertically and find it is up, measuring horizontally reveals a 50-50 distribution of left and right spins.

This result suggests that the vertical spin state is in a superposition of horizontal spins.

## Entanglement and Relativity

According to quantum information theory, quantum mechanics—including entanglement—is fundamentally based on the qubit and its superposition. Our proposal is that quantum superposition is an outcome of the relativity principle.

If an electron with vertical spin passes through horizontal measurement, it would still have spin, maintaining consistency with the relativity principle.

This perspective suggests that relativity may underlie quantum entanglement, eliminating the need for forces or "spooky actions at a distance" that Einstein criticized.

With the practical implications of quantum entanglement already evident in quantum computing, it's promising that this foundational question might be answered through a well-established physics principle.

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